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The basic principle, it is a measure of the “force” being used (or attempting) to turn an element. This measurement is achieved by the use of strain gauges bonded to the shaft, measuring the strain, induced in the shaft by the applied torque or “force”.
Torque sensor converts torque into an electrical signal.
The strain gauge is bonded to a beam or structural member that deforms when a torque or force is applied. Deflection induces a stress that changes its resistance.
A Wheatstone bridge converts the resistance change into a calibrated output signal.
reference from https://datum-electronics.co.uk/